Irrigation pipe for irrigation
Abstract: the low pressure pipe irrigation technique is an advanced surface irrigation engineering technology to pipeline instead of open channel water, water saving, time saving, water fast, is conducive to a large area of proper uniform water supply, reducing irrigation costs, ensure that the large area balanced production, broad prospects.
Key words: agricultural irrigation; water saving technology; low pressure pipeline
Our country has a serious shortage of water resources, agricultural water accounted for about 70% of China's total annual water, and waste is very serious. At present our country's irrigated area is about 5330hm
2, compared with the advanced countries reached more than 0.8 utilization coefficient of irrigation water, the utilization coefficient of irrigation water in China is only about 0.4, 60% of the water in the distance
Water, water and irrigation in the process of being wasted.
If the use of advanced irrigation technology, the irrigation water irrigation the coefficient increases by 0.1, the annual savings of 40 billion cubic meters of water. Therefore, to improve the utilization rate of water resources, water conservation and water science is the core task of solving the problem of water resources.
2 the characteristics of pipeline irrigation
The pipeline is a water pipe replacement channel engineering measures, it will be by irrigation water diversion facilities through certain pressure to the field. The pipeline water can enter the field of water diversion pipeline by furrow and border, also can be in the water outlet is connected with a hose into the furrow and border. Pipe irrigation has the characteristics of water saving, land saving, labor saving, low energy consumption, has become a common measure of water-saving irrigation technology in.
The pipeline is often used underground, so basically eliminates water evaporation and leakage loss. The test showed that the pipe irrigation in sandy loam, the utilization coefficient of water is 95~97%, increased by 30% and 10% respectively than the canal, canal concrete. In addition, hose irrigation along the ridge from far to near the border segment, often short irrigation, irrigation, irrigation quota is 600 m3 / ha. Compared with pipe irrigation canal irrigation can save water about 40%, compared to the concrete lining channel plate 8% water saving, relatively impervious channel stone about 16% water saving.
2.2 of the arable land occupied by small, convenient mechanical tillage in well irrigation area canal generally cultivated area of about 1~2%. Underground pipeline replacement canal, can make
The increase in cultivated area 1~2%. Although the canal irrigation water flow, but the problems of cultivated area occupied channels, so realizing pipeline irrigation in Canal Irrigation District, has the advantages of reducing channel occupation of cultivated land is very obvious, and has significant economic and social benefits. In addition, the underground pipeline replacement canal, is conducive to machine farming, improve labor efficiency.
2.3 the amount of irrigation, irrigation water cycle fast, timely supply, shorten the irrigation cycle is pipeline irrigation canal irrigation is the advantage, not only changed
Good irrigation conditions, but also conducive to the amount of irrigation, and fully and effectively meet the crop growth period, especially the critical period of water requirement of crop water requirements. Canal irrigation irrigation for long period, irrigation is not timely crop growth, resulting in production. Irrigation pipe overcomes this shortcoming, to increase production effect. Avoid running water Water Leakage, saving labor management, improve management efficiency.
2.4 wide application range, reasonable economy, good benefits
According to the survey shows that, in the premise of carrying water supply station or wells, pipeline irrigation can save about 30% energy consumption than channel irrigation. Pipe irrigation is the use of pressure water supply pipe irrigation, so suitable for all kinds of terrain, and the canal to irrigated farmland can be effectively irrigated. Not only to expand the area of irrigation, but also improve the economic benefits of irrigation.
Pipeline irrigation technique is simple and easy to learn, use can easily master pipeline irrigation equipment. The ground hose across the ditch, ditch, turning and climbing, good plasticity, hard plastic buried pipe has the characteristics of anti cracking, long service life, convenient cement pipe materials. Therefore, different crops, soil, water, and can flow
Suitable for pipe irrigation.
3 in the single well pipeline irrigation in the use of safety valve in the low pressure pipe irrigation, in order to ensure the pipeline in the boot and a sudden power outage to avoid stop pump water hammer damage, safety valve and the exhaust valve can be installed in the first network device. From the practice of survey shows that good effect of several safety valve or the exhaust device, water tower, three docking type formula, tube wells, can be popularized.
Install iron butt type safety valve in the upper joint, the lower part of the joint is connected with the PVC underground pipe, cast iron pipe or steel pipe joint and a water pump outlet pipe directly connected.
Has the characteristics of high efficiency, good safety performance.
3.2 water tower
That is at the bottom of tower and underground water tower type PVC tube is connected with the water pump outlet pipe into the pool, the tower of brick (pool height 2~3m, diameter of 0.4~0.5m, with a square tower), can be water into the underground pipe for irrigation. Compared with the butt, the cost of the early form of equipment is low, but the high cost of running late.
3.3 Formula Three
Three - PVC three pipe one to install 2~3m with the same diameter PVC tube, a PVC connected with the underground pipeline, a water pump outlet pipe is connected with the. Compared with other forms, the three formula has the advantages of high efficiency, convenient installation, low investment, economical and practical.
3.4 tube wells
Well tube bottom and underground water pump outlet pipe of the PVC network is connected to the other end of the concrete well pipe, 2~3 section (2~3m), with 200~400m m diameter tube wells.
4 low pressure pipe irrigation management specification and technical requirements in water conservancy projects, coordinate construction, correctly handle the relationship between the tube and the three is very important, so is the low-pressure pipe irrigation work. In order to achieve the goal of low pressure pipe irrigation, pipe is the key, and the pipeline is built at all. In order to give full play to its effectiveness, must ensure the quality of pipeline system construction, and make good use of.
4.1 standard management
In order to ensure the normal operation of the low-pressure pipeline irrigation system, perfect management needs to adapt to the establishment of a low-pressure pipe irrigation system, phase. From the water, according to the law of the implementation of the contract responsibility system, improve the organization and management, establish appropriate standards to improve the management standard.
4.2 low pressure pipe irrigation system operation technology
The maintenance work before irrigation pipeline is necessary, should first open the hydrant pouring block, and each line opened at least three; then entered the gate. When opening the intake pressure, should pay attention to the pool water level and weir flush, and the water level is stable, can meet the water pipeline; finally, the end of irrigation operation in reverse order, which closes the gate, then close the hydrant. In the end of winter irrigation, should also be discharged into the residual water in the pipeline. Otherwise, easy to freeze pipes.
Shortage of irrigation technology of low pressure pipeline of the domestic 5
5.1 pipeline irrigation engineering standard is low. Tens of millions of acres of pipeline engineering is in early 1980s while studying practice in the development of the scale was gradually growing up. Therefore, irrigation pipe standards can not keep up the pipe irrigation in the practice of the design, construction and use of the pace.
5.2, the lack of large caliber pipe fittings and accessories series. The speed of development and the engineering irrigation technology of piping water quality still can not meet the actual demand of pipeline irrigation. The reason for this situation is the main influence, specializing in the production of agricultural pipeline series of pipe fittings and pipe and ancillary equipment manufacturers have produced, and the production technology development of large-scale irrigation pipe suitable for irrigation water pipe manufacturers especially, even with the pipe and tube well irrigation area has not formed a series of production, standardization, standardization and industrialization.
5.3 project planning and design level still need to be improved. In the investment of the whole pipeline system, pipeline network system is the largest investment. In order to improve irrigation efficiency, reduce the investment cost of the project, can be optimized on the overall network. However, due to China's current network engineering planning and design, optimization of the website is difficult to achieve.
5.4 field engineering standards and supporting level needs to be improved. At present, not without the formation of standardization, series of stereotypes products and technology is mainly due to the water outlet water feeding or field furrow water distribution device and water distribution technology is not perfect.
5.5 less investment. In developed countries, the pipeline has reached 90%, while in China the pipeline because of its less investment, its coverage is far better than the foreign. Therefore, the relevant departments should increase the investment in irrigation pipeline.
The low utilization rate of equipment 5.6. Large diameter low pressure pipeline in many irrigation area instead of the water channel has become the trend of future development, but at present, many equipment utilization rate is low.The main reason is the operation management and promotion is not in place, resulting in unnecessary waste of resources.
Because of the shortage of water resources, agricultural water saving has become the focus of water-saving and water-saving irrigation area, is the priority among priorities. With China's Irrigation in well irrigation area of low pressure pipeline mature, low pressure pipe irrigation area accounts for about 1/4 of the total area of well irrigation area, but there are still about 933 hectares of arable land has not extended low pressure pipeline. Taking into account the degree of development of agricultural industrialization, rural urbanization, China is mainly to improve the irrigation efficiency and farmland use of advanced science and technology and modern facilities of automatic control so as to achieve the purpose of water saving agriculture degree. According to the practice shows that the irrigation water pipelines of strong applicability, can achieve reasonable control of water distribution, saving farmland, reduce irrigation, high economic benefit. Therefore, irrigation water pipe should be the main measure for agricultural water saving irrigation. In order to promote the development of water saving irrigation, irrigation technology, deployment and management of urgent open water use efficiency in agriculture investment mechanism, policies and regulations need service system.